User manual ELECTRO-VOICE SUBWOOFER ARRAYS A PRACTICAL GUIDE

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Manual abstract: user guide ELECTRO-VOICE SUBWOOFER ARRAYSA PRACTICAL GUIDE

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[. . . ] Subwoofer Arrays A Practical Guide Vers i on 1 E l ectro- V oi ce, B urns vi ll e, M i nnes ota, U S A © Bosch Security Systems Inc. A pri l, 2009 Subwoofer Arrays A Practical Guide Jeff Berryman Rev. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Acoustical Concepts. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Wavelength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [. . . ] This is more economical than having a separate drive and amplifier channel for each woofer. However, should a separate drive channel per woofer be available, even better coverage would be possible. 15 SUBWOOFER ARRAYS · A PRACTICAL Blue 40Hz Red 60Hz Green 90Hz GUIDE REV. Xsub x12 center flown in arena. Delay and Gain Top to Bottom 5 5 2 2 1 1 0 0 1 1 1 mSec mSec mSec mSec mSec mSec mSec mSec mSec mSec mSec -3 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 -3 dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB dB 16 SUBWOOFER ARRAYS · A PRACTICAL GUIDE REV. Gradient Arrays A gradient array is an arrangement of loudspeakers driven at different amplitudes and phases in such a way as to cancel sound radiation in unwanted directions. Gradient arrays only work when their dimensions are small with respect to wavelength. They are the opposite of beamformed and endfire arrays, which must be large in order to work. The reason for this is that gradient loudspeakers work by controlling pressure differences between the different parts of the sound wave, and must therefore be small enough to work "within" the wave. Figure 22. Gradient Gradient loudspeakers are the loudspeaker counterparts of ordinary directional microphones, which work by picking up pressure differences between different parts of the sound wave. The gradient technique is the only practical way to implement subbass pattern control with small arrays. When set up carefully and correctly, gradient arrays can provide a range of useful patterns that will give significantly better bass coverage than could be achieved using simple arrays of comparable size. 8. 1. Example Figure 23 shows a pair of EV Xsub subwoofers in a basic gradient configuration. The rear box is driven in reverse polarity and is delayed by 4. 65 mSec. Although in this example the loudspeakers are mounted back to back, it need not always be so. As long as the there is enough space between front and rear cabinets to allow the rear loudspeaker's sound to emerge, the rear cabinet can be mounted facing forward or backward. In all cases, the delay value must always be adjusted to match the spacing between loudspeaker cones. If each Xsub shown in Figure 23 were a column of Xsubs instead of a single Xsub, we would have a gradient line array. Gradient line arrays have useful properties and will be discussed further below. 17 SUBWOOFER ARRAYS · A PRACTICAL GUIDE REV. For a given gradient pair, the pattern can be varied by changing the rear-element delay. Available patterns are similar to those of microphones: cardioid, hypercardioid (various types), and figure-8. Figure 24 and Figure 25 show four pattern options for the back-to-back Xsub pair from the example above. Figure 24. Audience on the right. 18 SUBWOOFER ARRAYS · A PRACTICAL GUIDE REV. When constructing a gradient pair, it is important to understand the role of element spacing. [. . . ] The problem with this practice is that changing the gain of subwoofers only can affect the behavior of the subwoofer crossover in unexpected ways. A better practice is to tune the subwoofer crossover to give a flat response (as described above in Appendix B), then to use equalization (we call it "subbass contour EQ") to create the desired overall curve. This equalization will not interfere with the subwoofer crossover as long as it is applied equally to both the subwoofers and the main array. This principle leads to one of two signal path diagrams, depending on whether the subwoofers are driven as part of the main mix or from their own mix. [. . . ]

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